Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A man dies. His community's culture deems that he be buried in holy ground lest the community suffer some catastrophe. He, having always been at odds with his community on this point, has left a provision in his will that he be cremated and his ashes scattered into the ocean. The body waits in the hospital while the community debates the issue. What is to be done? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The elders have asked for a moral opinion. What is one to say? If the belief that the man must be buried is one deeply ingrained in the hearts and minds of the community, then a decision to cremate him would cause an uproar. On the other hand, if there are some who sympathize with the man, either decision might cause a schism within the community. The ultimate action would have to depend on much more than the culture's belief about burial. It would have to take into account the culture's beliefs on individual rights, freedom of belief, and the validity of the man's will. It would also have to take into account the moral implications of carrying out a man's dying wish and the repercussions of violating a sacred social institution. This is not a decision to be taken lightly, but by stepping back and weighing the options carefully, one can come to a conclusion which would be the most moral given the situation. I say most moral because there really is no right choice here. Any action taken will most definitely be wrong to at least one group of people. Here no plea can be made to universal morality because neither belief in its specific sense appeals to any pure moral intuition. People on the other side of the world might have neither the belief that the man should be buried, nor the belief that his ashes should be spread. Each person's choice would be too influenced by his own cultural morality, and so nobody would really have a right to judge. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Were I to be asked for an opinion on this matter, I feel I would have no authority in my response. It is really the community's choice, and I would be afraid to make a decision which affects people completely strange to me. I doubt they would ask me in the first place, but were I to be asked my opinion I would say that the man should be buried in the special burial ground.
Monday, January 13, 2020
1. Which two training sessions did you select and why? I chose the Microsoft excel and the Microsoft access training session, the reason why I chose the excel training session was so that I could gain more knowledge on better data analysis and ways in which one can make it more easier to insert formulas on data, excel is known for the analysis of a large sample of data. Microsoft access session is also concerned with data and therefore I wanted to learn more about how one can make computing easier when dealing with data that fall in different categories. 2. What were the highlights of the first training session? The first training session I chose was the Microsoft excel session, the main highlights included the great excel features, printing options of excel, creating a chart, enter formulas and working with the keyboard. 3. What were the highlights of the second training session? The second training session was on Microsoft access, the main highlights in this session were differences between a list and a data base, primary keys, fields and tables and finally the four main objects that databases contain 4. Describe three benefits from each training session (six totals) that you will use in your personal or professional life. From both training sessions I have improved my office package use with ease in understanding the application of both excel and access. Microsoft Excel I learnt how to import data into a worksheet, this has helped me text to ease my work of transferring text like data into excel without having to write the whole data manually from other office packages such as word. I also learnt to use various formulas and short cuts to those formulas, in the case where one has a sample whose sample is over a hundred one can simply add up easily and also find the mean and also draw a histogram and other charts. I also have learnt to use more than one chart, in this case I have learnt also to auto fill formulas having only written the on the first row, this makes it easier to use on data that require to be multiplied by different columns on the worksheet. Microsoft Access In this course I learnt how to use queries and let access give an output, example in a case where one wants to know how many individuals in a company earn more than a certain level of income, all you need to do is enter a query and then you get your results. I also learnt how to make a database which aids in organization of work, the data base will be created with fields such as address, location, department and even the name, this will aid in organization of the data of employees to a manager or accountant. I also learnt how to use the data in access to mail merge, this entails the writing of a letter in word and leaving some fields linked to the data and then one only has to merge the letter with the data base and one can write to a hundred people within minutes. 5. What would you add to either training session in terms of improvement, if anything? In terms of improving the training session I would recommend that there be more advanced learning concerning the various Microsoft packages, this will involve animation of ways in which various applications are applied. REFERENCE: Microsoft office training (2007) Microsoft excel and Microsoft access training sessions, retrieved on 26th July, available at www.office.microsoft.com/en-us/training/default.aspx Ã
Friday, December 27, 2019
A hygrometer is a weather instrument used to measure the amount of humidity in the atmosphere. There are two main types of hygrometers -- a dry and wet bulb psychrometer and a mechanical hygrometer. What is Humidity? Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere caused by condensation and evaporation. It can be measured as absolute humidity (the amount of water vapor in a unit volume of air), or a relative humidity (the ratio of moisture in the atmosphere to the maximum moisture the atmosphere can hold). It is what gives you that uncomfortable sticky feeling on a hot day and can cause heat stroke. We feel most comfortable with relative humidity between 30% and 60%. How do Hygrometers Work? Wet and dry bulb psychrometers are the most simple and common way of measuring humidity. This type of hygrometer uses two basic mercury thermometers, one with a wet bulb one with a dry bulb. Evaporation from the water on the wet bulb causes its temperature reading to drop, causing it to show a lower temperature than the dry bulb. Relative humidity is calculated by comparing the readings using a calculation table that compares the ambient temperature (the temperature given by the dry bulb) to the difference in temperatures between the two thermometers. A mechanical hygrometer uses a slightly more complex system, based on one of the first hygrometers designed in 1783 by Horace BÃ ©nÃ ©dict de Saussure. This system uses an organic material (usually human hair) that expands and contracts as a result of the surrounding humidity (that also explains why you always seem to have a bad hair day when itÃ¢â¬â¢s hot and humid!). The organic material is held under slight tension by a spring, which is linked to a needle gauge that indicates the level of humidity based on how the hair has moved. How Does Humidity Affect Us? Humidity is important for our comfort and our health. Humidity has been linked to sleepiness, lethargy, lack of observations, lower observation skills, and irritability. Humidity also plays a factor in heat stroke and heat exhaustion. As well as affecting people, too much or too little humidity can affect your possessions. Too little humidity can dry out and damage furniture. In contrast, too much humidity can cause moisture stains, condensation, swelling, and mold. Getting the Best Results from a Hygrometer Hygrometers must be calibrated at least once a year to ensure they provide the most accurate results possible. Even the best, most expensive hygrometerÃ¢â¬â¢s accuracy is likely to alter over time. To calibrate, place your hygrometer in a sealed container alongside a cup of salt water, and place it in a room where the temperature stays relatively constant throughout the day (e.g. not by a fireplace or front door), then leave it to sit for 10 hours. At the end of the 10 hours, the hygrometer should display a relative humidity level of 75% (the standard) -- if not, you need to adjust the display.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Project Charter A Vacation to Remember Kaplan University Project Management IT 301 April 6, 2013 Lewis Travel Investors A Family Vacation Project Charter Project Name: Family Vacation Project Manager: Mrs. Lewis Project Tracking Number: 5511-6677 Project Justification: The intent of the project at hand is to ensure that larger families have an enjoyable, stress free vacation within a reasonable budget. We will explore possibilities beyond the limited amount of people per hotel room, and discover affordable ways to accommodate the perspective families when they exceed the standard limits. Project Priority: This vacation is the primary project and should supersede any and all projects until the planning is complete,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Name: | Authority: | Role: | FatherMr. Horace Byrd | Father will have full authority in regards to budget, reservations, activities, and accommodations. | Primary Investor | MotherMrs. Tomeko Byrd | Mother will have full authority in regards to budget, reservations, activities, and accommodations. | Secondary Investor | Mrs. Lewis | Upon approval from primary and secondary investors, full authority in regards to activities, reservations, and accommodations. | Project Manager | Mr. Juan Morales | Upgrade room, and retrieve extras not included in room fee, as well gifting comp coupons and waterpark admissions. | Hotel Manager | Mrs. Gween Hernandez | Schedule restaurant reservations, and prepare food for room service. | Restaurant Manager | Primary StakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ Roles: Key Constraints: 1. Issues that involve the rental car that would delay arrival at the airport. 2. Accident or Illness. 3. Flight delay. 4. Inclement weather. Key Assumptions: 1. All motel reservations will not exceed budgeted cost. 2. All food that is prepared will be free of allergens as prerecorded with Mrs. Hernandez. 3. All seats on the flight will be located together, as requested. 4. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Organizational Change in Early Childhood and Care Settings. Answer: Introduction The essay is about the organizational change in early childhood and care settings. However before the same is narrated it is very important to understand the meaning of the terms organizational change , change management and early childhood care and setting. The former basically means a transformation that an organization or a corporate entity undergoes. A change in the organization is said to happen when there is a significant alteration occurring in the strategies or such important sections of the business. It is commonly known as reorganization or restructuring. Such a change can be a part and parcel of an organization or may even occur in break periods. Whereas early childhood care and education sis basically looking after a child during the budding stage when he or she is growing up as it has a greater impact on the health, well being as well as the proficiency of a child through all walks of his or her life. Bringing in a sudden change within an organization without coordinatin g with the various wings of the organization would lead to toppling down of the transformation process. Thus management of such an alteration is a framework which helps to tackle the implication of the newer business process and procedures. It basically caters to dealing with the human capital side of the organization. Various strategies have to be formulated and followed in order to ensure that the change is being accepted by all whole heartedly (Wan, 2013). The essay describes what kind of a role the leaders are expected to play while endearing an organizational change along with the various strategies that they need to follow so as to ensure that the change is successful in an early childhood and care setting. The National quality Framework has laid down a set of latest National Quality Standard for the early childhood education and care setting specifically for the time period beyond the school hours in Australia. It concentrates upon the staffs as they have a great implication upon the quality of experience that younger children go through. Role of the Leader in Change Management Process The leadership in an early childhood education and care setting is essential to excellence and is much more than supervision and governance. Here leadership basically boils down to innovation and at the same time is very sensitive to the past, multiplicity and situation as well. The said view is supported by NQF wherein it states that for all these services, it is a necessity to appoint an enlightening principal either within the facility or by smaller services setting up official admission to an external educational leader. As per the National Law, Section 169 and National Regulation, Regulation 118, an educational leader is looked up as an instructor, manager or such a person who is competent and a veteran and should be appointed to manage the growth and implementation of the laid educational program within the service being provided. The leader should be well conversant with the understanding of the Early Years Learning Framework as this would help him show a path to the other edu cators as to how to plan their teaching ways and skills for the development of a child and further act as a mentor to the colleagues as well while the practices are being put into action. Although the leaders have to manage twin challenges while undergoing an organizational change i.e. technical aspect and human aspect of which we would emphasize upon the human aspect and the emotional and educational stance attached to it (Ajmal et.al. 2013). A leader is the one who is also known as a shaper wherein he is responsible to define the kind of change he is looking for, sets the pace for the others and expects others to follow them (Lewis Hill 2012). It is the people who are targeted. From the view point of a shaper, a change leadership is associated with steering via the leaders change agenda thus enabling to deal with any kind of resistance shown by the employees of the organization so as to force them to think and behave in a different manner. The role of a leader in early childhood education and care setting as a pedagogy designer includes popping up with such ideas that lead to the birth of newer and better ways of teaching, learning, assessment and curriculum development. To be a creator of pedagogy, it calls for formulation of such strategies that is child friendly. For a leader in this kind of an organizational setting, the interest and the desires of the children should be the main driving factor which would decide upon what should be created (Bendelta. 2015). In an early childhood care and setting, a leader is looked upon as not only an agent of change but also a follower at the same time Thus the leader in such a setting is required to follow these five principles of responsibility, fairness in contribution, dispensation in a group, unremitting communication and positive interdependence but also includes the 4Cs of critical thinking and problem solving, collaboration, creativity and communication. While preaching positive interdependence, a leader in such an organization creates an environment for the participants stating the desire to work together in cohesion so that they have the concept of sink or swim together. By the principle of personal responsibility, within the members of an ECE setting, the leader desires that the members of the organization develop a feeling of personal accountability for the performance of the work thus steering towards achieving the organizational goals. By ensuring a fair contribution from all the members of the organization within an ECE setting, the goal of bringing a change in the organization is achieved with success without any hindrances (Stagl, 2011). Identify Various Processes and Strategies a Positive and Effective Process of Change For ensuring the organizational change in an early childhood and educational care setting, various strategies have to be formulated so that the said change occurs in a positive manner. First and foremost, a change can be initiated successfully in an educational setting by setting up an honest and true dialogue with the other members of the school. Various kinds of communication has to be initiated which can be formal, informal, low key as well as hard hitting before such a change be implemented in the school. Further as these educational and care settings propose for change, they can observe to the present knowledge base for the purpose of inspiration and support (Ministry of Education. 1998). If adequate realistic reasons are illustrated for bringing in the change then it would help to persuade those who are against accepting such a change. Learning innovators who are well conversant of the advancement in the cognitive sciences are rationally and habitually politically authorized as they begin to influence school philosophy, policy and practice. Receptive educating relationship gets strong when the teachers and the children learn and educate themselves together. In such a situation the educators are expected to be more approachable, determined and considerate as well when the staff arrangements at the centre is set in such a manner which gives them additional allowance to concentrate only upon their job of educating the children and are not required to diversify their focus to other jobs and tasks. Renewal and reorganization of schools which even includes the childhood educational care settings as well, is a rarity and considered as a logical procedure. The leaders who are bringing in the change should expect and foresee their own poignant responses to alteration, including the staunch reactions from others (Plumb Kautz, 2014). The emotional cycle of change is a five stage process comprising of uninformed optimism, informed pessimism, hopeful realism, informed optimism and a feeling of rewarding completion. Whenever consensus is reached over implementing a change or adopting a new policy, a dip in the performance level of the employees and the staff is experienced which is quite common. Although this may lead to the birth of anger and frustration, yet the same is a temporary phenomena (Morrison, 2007). Once the said negativity has reached its brim, then it is generally seen that a reversal of behavioural pattern is experienced and the individual reorganizes itself in a manner which is even better than before and the children are seen to develop even more fast as well as in a better manner. Conclusion Thus on a concluding note, it is understood that change is a necessity in any organization, be it a corporate house or an educational setting but the method of bringing in the change is important to decide upon the success of the same. The role of a leader cannot be denied or ignored as it is the leader who steers the boat within an organization whenever such a change is to be implemented in an organization. The fact that the early childhood educational care and setting environment is a little critical one in nature as it helps to shape the future of a growing child and prepare their base in a string manner. However, if the change is not welcomed by these care givers, then the children would be the main sufferers. Further, in such a setting, change should be bought in very carefully specially given weightage to the emotional quotient more as dealing with such a stage of the kids needs the staff to have an emotional balance within themselves. Therefore various strategies should be ado pted to bring in the change gradually and in a phased manner. References: Ajmal,S. Farooq, M.Z. Sajid, N. Awan,S. (2013). Role of leadership in Change Management Process. Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. 5(2). 111-124. Retrieved from https://aupc.info/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/V5I2-8.pdf Bendelta. (2015). What is the Role of leadership in change management? Retrieved from https://www.bendelta.com/news/organisation/what-is-the-role-of-leadership-in-change-management/ Lewis,J. Hill,J. (2012). What does leadership look like in early childhood settings? Every Child Magazine. 18(4). Retrieved from https://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-publications/every-child-magazine/every-child-index/every-child-vol-18-4-2012/leadership-look-like-early-childhood-settings/ Ministry of Education. (1998). Providing Positive Guidance: Guidelines for early childhood education services. Retrieved from https://education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Early-Childhood/ProvidingPositiveGuidance.pdf Morrison,G.S. (2007). Early Childhood Education Today. 10th Edition. Paerson Prentice Hall: Australia Plumb,M. Kautz, K. (2014). Innovation within an early childhood education ad care organization : a tri-perspective analysis of the appropriation of IT. Retrieved from https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1662context=buspapers Stagl,H. (2011). Six Roles of a leader during change. Retrieved from https://www.enclaria.com/2011/10/06/six-roles-of-a-leader-during-change/ Wan,K.E. (2013). The Role of Leadership in Organizational Transformation. Retrieved from https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Pages/The-Role-of-Leadership-in-Organisational-Transformation.aspx
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Social facilitation theory Paper Social facilitation describes the process in which performance is affected by the presence of others and is studied due to the importance of performance improvement in workplaces, education etc. Within social facilitation are coaction and audience effects. The term audience effect is used to explain the effect of a passive presence on performance and was first observed by Dashiell (1930). He looked at the effect of observation on college students completing multiplication problems, and discovered that whilst more problems were finished, the students tended to make more errors, when problem-solving before an audience. The experimenter observed his participant even in the alone condition and this might have impaired results. Studies then focused on the audience size and status. Porter (1939) asked people who stuttered to read aloud to an audience, finding that participants presented with a larger audience were much more affected, and stuttered more than those with a smaller audience. Cottrell et al. (1968) used a blindfolded audience as his experimental condition so that participants could not be observed and found that the audience effects practically disappeared. The experimenter observed his participant even in the alone condition and this might have impaired results. Paulus and Murdock (1971) compared the audience effects shown by student research participants either being observed by an audience of psychology students, or by an audience which contained an expert. The expert was likely to be able to evaluate the performance/capability of the student and in this condition, results showed stronger audience effects. The experiment did use an unrepresentative sample. Latanend Harkins (1976) asked participants about their own nervousness as they recited poems before audiences, which varied in size and status. Whilst the participants rated themselves on different experiences, the experimenters found that participants rated themselves more nervous when before a larger or higher status audience. These experiments implied that the ability of the audience to evaluate the participants performance was important, that both the status and size of the aud ience made a great difference to the results. We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Others studied audience effect variance with task complexity. Cottrell, Rittle and Wack (1967) found that an audience facilitates the memorisation of simple word lists but more complex ones are learnt more slowly. Zajonc, Heingarter and Herman (1969) studied cockroaches and their behaviour when presented with a four-cockroach audience in two situations. In the first, cockroaches ran down a straight runway into a darkened goal area in order to avoid bright light. Here, the audience improved performance. In the second situation, the cockroach escape response was made more complex by requiring a 90O turn to achieve the goal. In this situation, audience impaired cockroaches performance. Hunt and Hillerys (1973) human experiment yielded comparable results in complex and simple mazes, both experiments lacked ecological validity. From his experiment, Zajonc summarised that social facilitation depends on task complexity and familiarity, saying that, An audience impairs the acquisition of new responses and facilitates the emission of well-learned responses. Simple, familiar things are done better when observed, but more complex, unfamiliar tasks are done less well when observed due to an instinctive response to anothers presence and increase in arousal. Cottrell (1972) rejected this, suggesting the evaluation apprehension model instead. He said that early in life we through anothers evaluation we receive social rewards and punishments (approval, disapproval etc. ), so the audience triggers arousal based on evaluation apprehension.